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An investigation into the risk and protective factors associated with youth offending

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This thesis examines risk and protective factors associated with youth offending and how these have been applied to legislation, prevention and intervention.

The first chapter reviews current trends in youth offending and approaches to treatment and interventions with young offenders.

The second chapter reviews current literature on risk and protective factors to youth offending and how this has radically changed the Youth Justice System. The risk and protective factors paradigm is then applied to an empirical research study in the third chapter. Findings from the empirical research study suggest that completers and non-completers of a community based program differ in terms of their anger levels and their current educational status.

The fourth chapter applies the risk and protective factors paradigm to a qualitative case study in order to demonstrate the intrinsic relationship between risk and protective factors and the applicability of the paradigm to interventions.

Chapter five presents a critique of the Children’s Nowicki-Strickland Internal External (CNSIE) locus of control scale, as internal locus of control has been identified as protective factor to youth offending. However, findings from the empirical study and case study suggests that locus of control is not a protective factor for the current sample.

The main conclusion derived from the thesis is identification of risk and protective factors associated with youth offending is relatively simple. However applying and implementing protective factors in intervention is much more difficult in reality. This has implications for future initiatives aimed at preventing youth offending.



editors comments

Editor's comments -  [ The above is the abstract from an original PhD thesis; the final publication in the study for the author in pursuit of a doctorate; such works result in the author being awarded a PhD and the title of Dr. by an appropriately accedited University. PhD's are the culmination of a number of years work by the author supervised by two (normally PhD or MPhil qualified) academics and, with the addition of a further appropriately qualified academic (not normally from the same University) as part of a viva-voce examination team. Successful research work at PhD level is designed to add to the body of knowledge in the study area at some level.

A PhD thesis often forms the foundation for journal articles for the author and leads to further enquiry in the form of what is called post-doctoral research. These works are characterised by comprehensive literature reviews, sometimes traditional yet multiple (and often mixed) methods, interesting if not ground breaking discussions and always directional signs toward further research; they provide for undergraduates not only a model for the possibilities for further study but a gift in terms of references in any given subject areas.

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Our best advice is to reference list internet sourced theses as ‘published’…. ie.; Author, (date). Title (emphasised). Place of publication and (university) publisher. Available from: URL reference. See our example reference below. ]


APA reference for this document


Reference :   Vien, A. (2010). An investigation into the risk and protective factors associated with youth offending. Foren.Psy.D. thesis, Birmingham: University of Birmingham. Available at


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PhD publications are normally published under Creative Commons Licence conditions in that you must attribute the work appropriately (use the reference above), must not distribute for commercial means and must not alter the work in any way. For a full copy of the CCL please see here. [Use of this document may be limited by © copyright ; by downloading you consent to our terms and conditions ]


Download this file (Vien10ForenPsyD.pdf)Vien10ForenPsyD.pdfVien, A. (2010). An investigation into the risk and protective factors associated with youth offending. Foren.Psy.D. thesis, Birmingham: University of Birmingham
Last Updated on Saturday, 01 September 2012 06:26  

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