sports development

sport & physical activity academic resources

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Student guidance

How to use this site;


sdbig3We are dedicated to providing documents and guidance for students studying sports development and sport & physical activity related subjects at colleges and universities. Having been around for almost 10 years many institutions use the information we have so don’t think that you are the first to find us – which means don’t cut and paste to essays or assessments pieces, your lecturers found us some time ago!


In the “Document Library” section you can download documents that interest you by subject area and we indicate other documents that may be relevant on each page. You need to login to download documents.


The Ruff guides section is designed to get you started with a research journey, we provide an overview of the topic area and some directional signs toward documents we hold that may be of interest.


In the members area we have an “Archive” repository you can find a list of all the documents we hold publically, so if you know exactly what you want, you can search for it there.


We also provide some “Career profiles” for you to look at – with links to find out more… and Jobs feeds so that you can start applying as you reach the end of your student journey.



In order to download documents, access the Archive and get the full experience you need to register an account and login with a small donantion.  If you wish to continue to use the members area you can upgrade your subscription to Pay as you go | 3 Months | 12 Months, via the User Menu.


We reserve the right to suspend or close accounts without refund, where we suspect mis-use of the members area.



A Ruff Guide to Referencing (APA)

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How do I reference?

Referencing material from this site causes some confusion....... so....

  • When you download a PDF from the site you should reference that document, not us!
  • If you use "our" ideas as written in the Ruff guides or "editors comments" then you should reference us! [as an electronic source], unless we are quoting from elsewhere. 
  • We use the American Psychological Association [APA] referencing system on this site and the full APA reference is clearly indicated on each library page. Each document in the repository archive is named in the APA style.

The following is designed to provide you with the basics of APA referencing......... download this at the foot of this page.


See our guide to referencing.......

Download this file (apa_referencing_basics.pdf)apa_referencing_basics.pdfAPA Referencing: Basics
Last Updated on Wednesday, 15 April 2009 16:06 Learn more

What is Plagiarism

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Plagiarism is the improper use of another's ideas or words.

Two types of plagiarism exist: plagiarism of structure and plagiarism of content.
Plagiarism of structure is the use of another's logical order in an essay, steps of reasoning in a paragraph or section, or order of elements in a sentence.
If an author uses six paragraphs to describe in detail the process through which a dictator took power, you cannot construct your essay to copy that exact structure of six paragraphs detailing those steps.  You can summarize those six steps within your work, as long as you provide a proper citation.
Additionally, if an author states, "Since the proletariat rose as a whole to support the dictator, they created the means by which he took control," and you change the sentence to say, "Because the great majority, made mostly of workers, got behind the dictator fully, they made the situation in which he came to power," you have paraphrased the author's idea but copied his original structure.  Even with a citation, this is plagiarism because you have directly copied the author's structure.  In this case, a direct quotation would have been appropriate.
Plagiarism of content is the failure to cite a summary, paraphrase, or direct quotation; failure to put a direct quoatation in quotation marks; and failure to keep summaries and paraphrases in your own words.
A summary is the condensed information from an original source.  For example, a summary of a three-paragraph section may be condensed into one or two sentences.  A summary should not repeat any specific words or phrases unless they are placed into quotation marks and cited separately.  Summaries are always cited.
A paraphrase uses roughly the same amount of words as the original source. It should not repeat any specific words or phrases, and it should not order elements in the same fashion as the original (see plagiarism of structure).  Paraphrases are always cited.
Any direct word-for-word use of any of the author's original language must be placed within quotation marks and properly cited.
Last Updated on Thursday, 16 April 2009 14:31


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Using Commas

These are main comma rules, but one should note that rules for direct address, clarity, interjections, addresses, dates, and numbers do exist.  These rules cover those commas that separate items and those that join items.
Rule 1: Separating Items in a Series
Use a comma to separate items in a list of three or more.
Examples: America’s landscape is composed of deserts, mountains, plains, and forests.
The astronauts’ mission was to land on Mars, take soil samples, and come back safely.
Notice that the items in a series, whether nouns, verbs, or clauses, must remain parallel, meaning that all of the items in that series must be nouns.
Rule 2: Separating Introductory Elements from the Main Clause
Use a comma to separate an introductory word or clause from the independent clause.
Examples: After three years of intense therapy, I was able to write again.
Today, I will call my friend.
Although the terms of the contract were unclear, no one disputed it.
Therefore, you need a comma.
Rule 3: Separating Coordinating Adjectives
Use a comma between coordinating adjectives. You can tell coordinating adjectives by inserting the word “and” between them and switching their order. If they still make sense, they are coordinating and require a comma.
Examples: The dry, boring man was elected to office.
The large brown elephant ramped through the streets. No comma is necessary because “large” is modifying the type of elephant (brown).
Last Updated on Wednesday, 15 April 2009 15:59

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