Although the term social exclusion is often used interchangeably with other phrases such as, social inequalities, social stratification, social divisions and social division, according to Payne (2006) the terms do differ. Jarvie (2006) explains that the term ‘social inequalities’ generally refers to people’s access to resources. On the other hand the term ‘social stratification’, according to Jarvie (2006), is a term that is used to discuss class, power and status in sport, whereas the term ‘social divisions’ is a wider term that encompasses groups other than class and emphasises other forms of division, such as race and gender. Roberts suggests that social exclusion is about (2009:263) how people, ‘are typically excluded from some combination of wealth, income, employment, education, political representation, and social and emotional support. The term, according to Roberts (2009) originates from the 1980s when it was first used by the European Union at a time when unemployment was rising in many European countries.
Since 1997, the term social exclusion has become synonymous with the Labour government, as a key government initiative (Malcolm, 2008).) In particular, the Labour government adopted the term as a preferred label for discussing disadvantaged groups (Roberts, 2009). According to Malcolm (2008), those groups particularly identified at risk from social exclusion are young people, old people, low-income families, people from ethnic minority groups, people with disabilities, and the long term unemployed and homeless. These groups do not always experience exclusion singularly, and intersections of social exclusion are often experienced. For example, it could be argued that disabled women have differing experiences and opportunities from disabled men (Hargreaves, 2000).
As sport has been viewed as a positive activity within society, policy has often drawn upon sport as a tool for tackling social exclusion. Despite the popularity of sport as a ‘policy’ tool, the academic literature is more critical of the ability of sport to tackle social exclusion.
Editor's comments - [ The focus of this resource guide is to provide, from a sociological perspective, key literature on social exclusion in sport. Its purpose is also to provide the readers with a guide to the key literature on the topic of sport and social exclusion, as well as to advise on where to access teaching material for the topic of sport and social exclusion to undergraduate students. ] Reference this?Cryer, J. (Year). This page title in italics. Retrieved date, from <this page's full URL>
In the text: Cryer (year)
Reference : Velija, P. (2009). Resource Guide to Social Exclusion and Sport. York: Higher Education Academy.
The above reference is in the APA style: See why this is important in our [how to reference] us guide.
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