The school subject physical education is compulsory in all 25 EU countries and is governed by government-sanctioned curricula and/or regulations for school teaching. Recent studies (cf. Hardman & Marshall, 2000; Hardman, 2002, 2003; Marshall et al., 2002) do criticise numerous deficiencies as re-gards physical education funding, its acceptance at various levels of the school system, its status in schools and its actual time allocation. Nobody de-nies that the tasks and objectives of physical education as a school discipline – as formulated in former and current UNESCO charters as human rights for the education of young people (cf. Telama, 2002) – are largely complied with; the criticism is, and available results from the cited studies confirm, that there is a considerable difference between what is officially recommended for physi-cal education and what is actually implemented and practised in the schools. In Hardman’s study (2002), between 11 % (southern Europe) and 21 % (west-ern Europe) of those surveyed agreed with the assessment that physical edu-cation is not an important subject in the curriculum of European schools. In the EU countries Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia and Slovenia physical education lessons are cancelled more often than those of other subjects (Hardman 2002). This sobering result is not really very new. It is a recurring theme in the history of school physical education that is now heard throughout Europe.
In many European countries national, regional or local lesson schedules for school physical education are not fully implemented, so that there is a dis-crepancy between the prescribed lessons and those actually given by the schools. A number of empirical investigations that were carried out at various times during the 1990s provide an overview of the officially scheduled lessons for physical education in individual countries.
Editor's comments - [ This study, commissioned by the EU, aims to analyse young people’s lifestyles and sedentariness and the role of physical activity and sport in the context of education and as a means of restoring the balance. It was decided to conduct this study as a complex literature review and, so far as possible, to extend it to all the member states of the EU, including those newly acceded on May 1st 2004. As a further prerequisite it was decided to formulate a design for the re-view which takes a trans-disciplinary approach into consideration and analyses young people’s lifestyles and the development of sedentariness from various perspectives: for individuals and the physical development of their bodies, their social and mental patterns of behaviour (which are generally to some extent influenced by the different cultural settings in which they live) and finally, with reference to certain societal and environmental factors and determinants that cause or accompany the development of sedentary lifestyles. ] Reference this?Cryer, J. (Year). This page title in italics. Retrieved date, from <this page's full URL>
In the text: Cryer (year)
Reference : Brettschneider, W. Naul, R. (2004). Study on young people’s lifestyles and sedentariness and the role of sport in the context of education and as a means of restoring the balance. Paderborn: University of Paderborn
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